ALBANIAN PLATINUM CLUBS IN MACEDONIA (1908-1909). After the establishment of the parliamentary system with the introduction of the Constitution in the Ottoman state in 1908 in the vilay centers in Macedonia, Skopje, Bitola and Thessaloniki, then Albanian political clubs were established in Debar. The club in Skopje was founded in early September by military officers and officials in the Vilayet authorities of the Ottoman state. The Thessaloniki Albanian Club was founded and managed by figures of senior state services. The Thessaloniki Club until the spring of 1910 was led by Mitchet Frasheri, director of the Political Department of the Vilayet Administration. The two Albanian clubs represented the pro-Ottoman power. The Bitola Albanian club "Edinstvo" represented the national electricity, had the leading role of the entire building where one of the congresses for the Albanian alphabet (Bitola, 1908) was held south and central part of Albania (the country of Tosca). Each of the clubs had its own program and acted independently. The main issue in the activities of the clubs was the opening of schools and education in Albanian language and literacy. On the initiative of the Bitola Club, an Albanian congress (14-21. XI. 1908) was held in Bitola with the participation of 32 delegates on the issue of the Albanian alphabet. No agreement was reached on the Congress and the issue of the alphabet remained open. The Latin alphabet, adapted to the phonetic features of the Albanian language, gradually squeezed out: the Arabic alphabet in the northern and Greek in the southern part of Albania. In 1909 secret clubs for the organization of armed actions were formed in the clubs. After the adoption of the Law on Prohibition of Political Action, the Thessaloniki and Bitola Clubs stopped the activity, and the Skopje Club was forcibly broken up (28th XI). In December 1909 the forbidden Albanian political club in Skopje was constituted as an "Enlightenment Club". LIT: IL. Gologanov, Mladosturci and Albanians, "Bulgarian Collection", sc. 7, Sofia, 1912; I. Senkevich, Liberation Movement of the Albanian People in 1905-1912, Moscow, 1953; Manol Pandevski, Political Parties and Organizations in Macedonia (1908-1912), Skopje, 1965. Min.