AGROTEHNIKA


AGROTEHNIKA (artificial turf – skill and skill …) – skill, skill). Extensive, scientific and expert application material from the complex of agricultural sciences. It studies and finds technical and technological solutions for interventions in agrobiotypes and agro-biocenoses in certain agroecosystems, which enables the production of as stable, economical and quality products as possible from certain assortments of agricultural production. Agrotechnics comprises a complex of technical and technological measures that can be grouped into two basic groups: 1. Measures that make changes in the soils of individual agro
biotopes; and 2. Measures that influence the establishment of the most harmonious relationships between individual agrobiocenoses and the individual properties of agrobutots. The most important measures from the first group are the soil agromelioration and soil treatment. Soil agromeliorations, as required, include a number of measures, such as: leveling of uneven surfaces; regulation of the water regime of the prevailing surfaces by means of appropriate intakes – drainage with a canal network, with a special drainage system, meliorative deepening of the soil layer, etc .; cleaning the surface of the previous woody and green vegetation; leveling of surfaces and parcelization according to the conditions of the terrain and according to the directions (assortment) of the agricultural production, etc. Soil treatment is an intervention in the upper soil layer with certain machines and tools, with the function of which several important technological processes arise, such as: crushing and decomposing of the soil mass, overturning the plowed layer, mixing the individual layers with each other, leveling of the soil surface, and, if necessary, soil compacting. Each of the mentioned processes contributes to the creation and development of certain physical, chemical and biological functions in the soil, which contribute to the successful growth and development of the cultivated agrobiocenoses (crops) in the given agrobiotope (agricultural site). Soil cultivation for breeding of dairy and horticultural crops is usually composed of two basic parts: a part of basic processing and a part of the additional processing. The most common type of basic processing is plowing the soil with a plow with a plank. When plowing the soil with such a plow, rolling and crushing of the soil on smaller lumps and smaller aggregates and mixing the soil to the depth of the plow (usually 20-30 cm) is done. The additional soil processing involves several operations that enable the upper soil layer to successfully perform the sowing and to provide favorable aquatic conditions for the smooth growth and development of the upcoming crop. In the group of agrotechnical measures that influence the cultivated agrobiocenoses (individual cultures) include: crop rotation, seeds, sowing, cultivation of crops. Fertilizer is a plan for more efficient utilization of the conditions in agrobiotypes through the planetary change of agrobiocenoses (individual cultures) in space and time. Many species of honey and horticultural crops, if multiplied in the same place, do not find favorable conditions for normal growth and development. The fodder consists of two components: spicy and fruitful. Fruiting is the shifting of cultures in time, i.e. in the same place each vegetation season is cultivated by another culture; the polled means that if the agricultural facility has more plots, in the same vegetation season, planned, a particular crop (agrobiocenosis) is cultivated on each plot. Seeds and sowing as agrotechnical measures constitute methods for selection and application of quality seed material and, depending on the direction of production, application of appropriate method and technique of sowing. The preparation of seed material includes disinfection, cleaning of seeds from mechanical impurities, cleaning of weed seeds and seeds of other varieties of the same culture, etc. The sowing, depending on the type and direction of production, is most often performed with appropriate redesigners. Cultivation of cultures implies the implementation of certain agrotechnical measures from sowing to collection of crops. More frequent measures are: soil rolling, fragmentation of the surface crust of the soil, inter-cultivation and trampling in ternal crops, cropping of crops for the purpose of providing more optimal assembly (number of individuals per unit area) of crops, planting of plants in some crops, R. L.



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