Abdul Hamid Ⅱ (Istanbul, 21st IX1842 – Istanbul, October 10th, 1918) – thirty-third Ottoman Sultan, who ruled (31 Ⅷ 1876 – 27 Ⅳ 1909) and in the <a class = "wpg-linkify wpg- tooltip "title = '
'href = "https://macedonism.org/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0 % D0% B0% D0% B0% D0% BE% D0% BE% D0% B8% D0% 98% D0% B0 /% d0% bc% d0% b0% d0% ba% d0% b5% d0% b4% d0% b% d0% 98% d0% b0 /. At the beginning of the rule he issued the first Ottoman constitution (23 Ⅻ 1876), formed a two-domed parliament and introduced <a class = "wpg-linkify wpg-tooltip" title = '
'href = "https://macedonism.org/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0 % D0% B0% D0% B0% D0% BE% D0% BE% D0% B8% D0% 98% D0% B0 /% d1% 80% d0% b5% d1% 84% d0% be% d1% 80% d0% bc% d0% b8 / in favor of Christian subjects. The crisis culminated in the war with Russia, ended with the preliminary San Stefano (3 Ⅲ 1878) and the Berlin Treaty (13 Ⅶ 1878). He ruled absolutely absolutely, introduced the so-called. "Zulu mode". The contemporaries were called "Bloody Sultan". He was removed from power in 1909, at the time of the Young Turk Revolution. LIT: A. N. Baskal, Gnanj Kurtarma Sanazh Ⅱ Abdjnhamid'in shnnecicic sergar, Istanbul, 1999; H. NJ. Duda, Biographichess Leshikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, "Südsteuropäische Arbeiten", 75 Lieff. 1. Munich, 1972. Jan.